The term al-jabr in its Arabic title, Kitab al-jabr wa’l-muqabala, is the source of the English word algebra. Diophantus and his works also influenced Arab mathematics and were of great fame among Arab mathematicians. AWAKE! [1] This term was rendered as adaequalitas in Latin, and became the technique of adequality developed by Pierre de Fermat to find maxima for functions and tangent lines to curves. Some of the limitations of Diophantus' notation are that he only had notation for one unknown and, when problems involved more than a single unknown, Diophantus was reduced to expressing "first unknown", "second unknown", etc. For this reason it is difficult for the modern scholar to solve the 101st problem even after having studied 100 of Diophantos’s solutions”.[9]. He elaborated on concepts found in older sources, including Greek, Hebrew, and Hindu treatises. Hankel H., “Geschichte der mathematic im altertum und mittelalter, Leipzig, 1874. Arithmetica is the major work of Diophantus and the most prominent work on algebra in Greek mathematics. It's a bit like learning a foreign language. His texts deal with solving algebraic equations. "Les scolies aux arithmétiques de Diophante d'Alexandrie dans le Matritensis Bibl.Nat.4678 et les Vatican Gr.191 et 304". This algebra solver can solve a wide range of math problems.  |  The father of algebra: Abu Jaafar Mohammad Ibn Mousa Al Khwarizmi. Why “Hindu-Arabic”? In any case, it is unreasonable to portray them with purely European features when no physical descriptions exist. Pierre de Fermat owned a copy, studied it, and made notes in the margins. This Islamic mathematician was also instrumental in encouraging the use of the number 0 as a place holder. [10] In addition, some portion of the Arithmetica probably survived in the Arab tradition (see above). were Greek. Most of the problems in Arithmetica lead to quadratic equations. But now his methods and the mathematics related to them are the very lifeblood of science and technology, not to mention commerce and industry. Diophantus wrote several other books besides Arithmetica, but very few of them have survived. ^ par. [7] Much of our knowledge of the life of Diophantus is derived from a 5th-century Greek anthology of number games and puzzles created by Metrodorus. Fermat was not the first mathematician so moved to write in his own marginal notes to Diophantus; the Byzantine scholar John Chortasmenos (1370–1437) had written "Thy soul, Diophantus, be with Satan because of the difficulty of your other theorems and particularly of the present theorem" next to the same problem.[10]. Certainly, all of them wrote in Greek and were part of the Greek intellectual community of Alexandria. TERMS OF USE Diophantus introduced an algebraic symbolism that used an abridged notation for frequently occurring operations, and an abbreviation for the unknown and for the powers of the unknown. Before him everyone wrote out equations completely. He was one of the first to write about algebra (using words, not letters). Al Khwarizmi’s contributions to mathematics and astronomy haven’t gone unnoticed. Diophantus has variously been described by historians as either Greek,[2][3][4] or possibly Hellenized Egyptian,[5] or Hellenized Babylonian,[6] Many of these identifications may stem from confusion with the 4th-century rhetorician Diophantus the Arab. Prototypes of modern numerals were being used in India as early as the third century B.C.E. Diophantus coined the term παρισότης (parisotes) to refer to an approximate equality. “Modern Western numerals may be a conglomeration from different sources. Centuries later, Western mathematicians, including Galileo and Fibonacci, held al-Khwarizmi in high esteem because of his clear explanations regarding the use of equations. Fragments of a book dealing with polygonal numbers are extant. Hope for the Homeless and the Poor. They later took the knowledge home, aided by educated Muslim captives and immigrants. The latter enabled Middle Eastern scholars to calculate values for angles and sides of triangles and to advance studies in astronomy. Around 825 he wrote the book "Hisab Al-jabr w’al-muqabala", from which we get the word algebra (meaning 'restoration of broken parts'). Of the original thirteen books of which Arithmetica consisted only six have survived, though there are some who believe that four Arabic books discovered in 1968 are also by Diophantus. In Europe, Hindu-Arabic numerals “became commonly known during the 15th century.”​—Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Medieval World.

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