The primary reaction when it breaks down produces nitrogen, water vapour and oxygen. Blast calculations suggest that at sea level, an explosion like Beirut’s would require about 1,000 tons of ammonium nitrate. These days almost 100% of the chemical that is used is synthetic, produced by reacting ammonia with nitric acid. ", The source added, "it's a dangerous material, it's a very powerful oxidizer and is used for producing explosives. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people; The deadliest industrial … NEW ARMY LACKS RECRUITS Force Said to Be Below 100,000 Mamimum [, "70,000 AT OPPAU FUNERALS. ", The spokesperson said that colleagues at the company were very "surprised" to learn how long the chemical had been stored at the port as "that's not a material that you want to have stored without having any use for it." Fertiliser bombs, the terrorist's weapon of choice. Lebanese port officials said they made several requests to the courts to have the stockpile removed, but got no response. Background. VideoTech making it easier to see inside babies' brains, Dating coach reveals dilemma when starting out, Pandemic highlights anger at Amazon in France. The damage to property was valued in 1922 at 321 million marks, estimated by The New York Times at the time to be equivalent to 7 million US dollars[4][7] (since Germany suffered heavy hyperinflation in 1919–1924, given amounts and exchange rates were not very descriptive). White smoke billowing from a fire burning out of control in a warehouse near towering grain silos gave way to a massive explosion of reddish-black smoke. 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"We can confirm that yes, we did order it," a spokesperson for FEM told CNN. Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, How sunshine can make the railways greener. The blast in St Mary Axe killed three people, including a 15-year-old girl. This is due to other reactions generating nitrogen dioxide. The catastrophic blast has resulted in widespread devastation to Lebanon's capital city and left at least 154 dead, according to the Lebanese Health Ministry. Its biggest use is as a source of nitrogen for fertiliser, but it is also used to create explosives for mining. Ammonium nitrate’s major use is as a fertiliser – this accounts for around 78% of its use (by volume) worldwide. The pressure wave caused great damage in Mannheim, located just across the Rhine, ripped roofs off up to 25 km away, and destroyed windows farther away, including all the medieval stained-glass windows of Worms cathedral, 15 km (9.3 mi) to the north. .css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Beirut blast: Dozens dead and thousands injured, health minister says, 'America is back', says Biden as he unveils team. Videos posted online from the Beirut waterfront on Aug. 4 showed an epic disaster unfold with terrifying speed. But if added to a fuel source, and subjected to intense stresses like heat and pressure, it can explode. Today’s news has been dominated by the terrible explosion in Beirut, Lebanon. It’s a source of nitrogen, important for the growth of plants. [9], Coordinates: 49°31′04″N 8°25′06″E / 49.51778°N 8.41833°E / 49.51778; 8.41833, (slides for a talk given at UKELG (United Kingdom Explosion Liaison Group), Loughborough University), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Largest artificial non-nuclear explosions, "A factual clarification and chemical-technical reassessment of the 1921 Oppau explosion disaster - the unforeseen explosivity of porous ammonium sulfate nitrate fertilizer", "Risk and safety management of ammonium nitrate fertilizers: keeping the memory of disasters alive", "French Ministry of Environment, Explosion in a nitrogenous fertiliser plant, ARIA 14373", "Ammonium Nitrate: Fertiliser, Oxidiser and Tertiary Explosive, A Review of Ammonium Nitrate Safety Issues based on Incidents, Research and Experience in the Safety Field", "A factual clarification and chemical-technical reassessment of the 1921 Oppau explosion disaster – the unforeseen explosivity of porous ammonium sulfate nitrate fertilizer", "JUSTICE NOT BLIND IN GERMAN COURTS; Old Uniforms and Titles Protect Offenders Against Laws of the Republic. It was used by white supremacists to blow up the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Okla. in 1995. The rapid release of oxygen, along with the energy from the detonation wave, ignites the fuel. Warehouse 12 was waterside and next to the grain silos; the warehouse stored the ammonium nitrate that had been confiscated from MV Rhosus, alongside a "stash" of fireworks. Most countries have regulations controlling its storage to make sure it is safe. As it burns, ammonium nitrate goes through chemical changes that lead to the production of oxygen, precisely what a fire needs to keep going and get bigger. It is not clear why this warning was not heeded. Ammonium nitrate stored in a warehouse linked to catastrophic Beirut explosion By Helen Regan , Tamara Qiblawi, Ghazi Balkiz, Ben Wedeman and Luke McGee, CNN … Yes. Ammonium nitrate is made all over the world and is relatively cheap to buy. About 80 percent of all buildings in Oppau were destroyed, leaving 6,500 homeless. This reaction isn’t the only one taking place, however. As it heats up the chemical can fuse together, creating a seal or plug. In Heidelberg (30 km (19 mi) from Oppau), traffic was stopped by the mass of broken glass on the streets, a tram was derailed, and some roofs were destroyed. Videos taken closer to the explosion showed how a wall of compressed air shattered everything in its path as it moved closer, eventually sending the cameras themselves flying. So, when that happened, we knew it was probably for us," the spokesperson said. Coronavirus: Do you have a tribute to a loved one? And just five years ago, an estimated 800 tons of ammonium nitrate fueled a warehouse explosion that leveled part of a port in the Chinese city of Tianjin, killing 173. Here is the information he has gathered about the explosion in Beirut. But the Beirut explosion was far smaller than the 15,000-ton TNT equivalent of the smallest nuclear weapon ever used in war, which was dropped on Hiroshima 75 years ago this Thursday. This makes it more dangerous because if a fire reaches it, the chemical reaction will be much more intense. Before the explosion, a fire had started in the area, creating a plume of white smoke and small explosions. In ordinary circumstances, ammonium nitrate is fertilizer. Explosion (~20–30 tons of TNT) Cause: Sodium dichloroisocyanurate and ammonium nitrate mishandling and reaction: Deaths: 31: Non-fatal injuries: 2,500: On 21 September 2001, an explosion occurred at the AZF (French initialism for AZote Fertilisant, i.e. [screaming] [smaller explosions] [giant blast] [alarms] [alarms] [crying]. You might have wonder what caused the plume of smoke seen after the explosion in Beirut to have an orange-red colour. [4][2], As all involved died in the explosion, the causes are not clear. That bomb, the GBU-43 Massive Ordnance Air Blast, has a net explosive weight of 18,700 pounds or roughly 9.35 tons of TNT, according to data from the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center.

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