2009. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Biotechnology is the application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and microor­ Issue 13. The committee also contacted and received feedback in response to the RFI from several federal agencies that are not primary agencies within the Coordinated Framework. Preparing for Future Products of Biotechnology.Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Accessed September 24, 2016. 16 It is important to distinguish between nontarget effects and off-target effects. Shattering: Food, Politics and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. What scientific capabilities, tools, and/or expertise may be needed by the regulatory agencies to ensure they make efficient and sound evaluations of the likely future products of biotechnology? England: Staffordshire. Accessed on August 10, 2016. 0000012869 00000 n Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. But by then a strong anti-biotechnology culture was entrenched in most African countries. A year later a California-based firm, Applied Biosystems, revealed that it had sequenced the genome of a Nigerian man for under $60,000. Accessed September 13, 2016. to other species, perhaps to important species in the ecosystem that are beneficial or desired. It can lead to increased food security, as well as improving health in developing countries by enhancing food nutrition. This level of resolution was not available; as a result, the number of full-time employees (FTEs) in the regulatory agencies whose activities are most directly relevant to nonmedical biotechnology products is likely well below those depicted in the figures. The doubly green revolution: food for all in the twenty-first century. Accessed January 30, 2017. Excluding research on economic costs and benefits during the period 2012–2015 ($20.93 million), risk research during that period (approximately $68.98 million) would represent approximately 7 percent of the total synthetic-biology research portfolio. The benefits and risks need to be assessed on a case by case basis, weighing the risks and benefits for each particular situation. Under the circumstances, as the EU was the primary trading partner, African countries opted for a more restrictive approach partly because they were subject to diplomatic pressure. Under these new conditions, regulators will have to assess whether the risks of future products are different from products that have come before and whether the risk-analysis approaches that have been used (outlined in Chapter 3) are sufficient. At the time the committee was writing its report, DARPA was launching a “Safe Genes Program” to support responsible innovation while mitigating the risk of unintended consequences of genome editing and derivative technologies, including gene drives.17 The level of future research investments for this program was not publicly available. As an example of the complex pathways that might arise in this type of scenario, a possible risk pathway could be through horizontal gene transfer of the kill-switch mechanism in a gene drive. Guidance on selection of comparators for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants and derived food and feed. 2012. Lutman, P.J.W. SRA (Society for Risk Analysis). When James Watson, co-discoverer of the DNA double helix, had his genome sequenced in 2008 by 454 Life Sciences, the price tag was $1.5 million. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 73:1182–1188. Donnegan, K.K. 0000011635 00000 n It is highly unlikely that the Golden Rice will replace white rice, which for millennia has played a variety of nutritional, culinary, and ceremonial roles.

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